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Articles on propolis in the treatment of oral diseases

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Recurrent aphthous stomatitis affects approximately 20% of the world’s population. The disease is caused by small sores, large sores and herpetic sores in the oral mucosa. According to researches by Soren Tech Toos, propolis can cure this disease and prevent its recurrence.


Scientific achievements of propolis in the treatment of oral diseases:


ABDULRHMAN, M., et al. 2012. Honey and a mixture of honey, beeswax, and olive oil-propolis extract in treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized controlled pilot study. Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 29, 285-92.

AKCA, A. E., et al. 2016. The Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Propolis with Chlorhexidine against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study. Biomed Res Int, 2016, 3627463.

AKHAVANKARBASSI, M. H., et al. 2016. Randomized DoubleBlind PlaceboControlled Trial of Propolis for Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 17, 3611-4.

AL GHAMDI, A. A., et al. 2015. Oral supplementation of diabetic mice with propolis restores the proliferation capacity and chemotaxis of B and T lymphocytes towards CCL21 and CXCL12 by modulating the lipid profile, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and oxidative stress. BMC Immunol, 16, 54.

ALI, A. A., et al. 2021. Behavioral, Biochemical and Histopathological effects of Standardised Pomegranate extract with Vinpocetine, Propolis or Cocoa in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Exp Aging Res, 1-20.

ANAUATE-NETTO, C., et al. 2014. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effects of propolis and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on gingivitis. Braz Dent Sci, 17, 11-15.

ARAFA, M. G., et al. 2018. Propolis-based niosomes as oromuco-adhesive films: A randomized clinical trial of a therapeutic drug delivery platform for the treatment of oral recurrent aphthous ulcers. Sci Rep, 8, 18056.

ARAFA, M. G., et al. 2020. Publisher Correction: Propolis-based niosomes as oromuco-adhesive films: A randomized clinical trial of a therapeutic drug delivery platform for the treatment of oral recurrent aphthous ulcers. Sci Rep, 10, 2459.

ASGHARPOUR, F., et al. 2019. Iranian propolis efficiently inhibits growth of oral streptococci and cancer cell lines. BMC Complement Altern Med, 19, 266.

BAPAT, S., et al. 2021. Effect of propolis mouth rinse on oral microorganisms – a randomized controlled trial. Clin Oral Investig, 25, 6139-6146.

BENDERLI CIHAN, Y., et al. 2011. [Effect of propolis against radiation-induced oral mucositis in rats]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg, 21, 32-41.

BORGES, J. G., et al. 2015a. Orally disintegrating films containing propolis: properties and release profile. J Pharm Sci, 104, 1431-9.

BORGES, J. G. A., et al. 2015b. Orally Disintegrating Films Containing Propolis: Properties and Release Profile. 2015. J Pharm Sci 104:1431-1439. J Pharm Sci, 104, 3990.

BRAILO, V., et al. 2006. Delayed contact sensitivity on the lips and oral mucosa due to propolis-case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal, 11, E303-4.

BRUSCHI, M. L., et al. 2006. Preparation and antimicrobial activity of gelatin microparticles containing propolis against oral pathogens. Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 32, 229-38.

BUDIMIR, V., et al. 2012. Allergic contact cheilitis and perioral dermatitis caused by propolis: case report. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat, 20, 187-90.

CAVALCANTE, D. R., et al. 2011. Effect of green propolis on oral epithelial dysplasia in rats. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol, 77, 278-84.

CHEN, X., et al. 2014. Effects of epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone oral liquid on mucosal immunity in chickens. Int J Biol Macromol, 64, 6-10.

COSOLA, S., et al. 2019. Prevention of bacterial colonization on suture threads after oral surgery: comparison between propolis- and chlorhexidine-based formulae. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents, 33, 1275-1281.

DA SILVA BARBOZA, A., et al. 2021. Are propolis extracts potential pharmacological agents in human oral health? – A scoping review and technology prospecting. J Ethnopharmacol, 271, 113846.

DA SILVA, R. O., et al. 2015. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Brazilian red propolis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 170, 66-71.

DA SILVEIRA, C. C., et al. 2016. Neurobehavioral and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Yellow Propolis. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016, 2906953.

DALENBERG, H., et al. 2020. Propolis Envelope Promotes Beneficial Bacteria in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Mouthpart Microbiome. Insects, 11.

DASTAN, F., et al. 2020. Efficacy and safety of propolis mouthwash in management of radiotherapy induced oral mucositis; A randomized, double blind clinical trial. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother, 25, 969-973.

DAVOODI, S. H., et al. 2021. Oral Propolis, Nutritional Status and Quality of Life with Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial. Nutr Cancer, 1-9.

DE FAVERI, M., et al. 2021. The effect of Brazilian propolis type-3 against oral microbiota and volatile sulfur compounds in subjects with morning breath malodor. Clin Oral Investig.

DEHGHANI, M., et al. 2019. Effect of Propolis mouthwash on plaque and gingival indices over fixed orthodontic patients. J Clin Exp Dent, 11, e244-e249.

DODWAD, V., et al. 2011. Propolis mouthwash: A new beginning. J Indian Soc Periodontol, 15, 121-5.

ELBAZ, N. M., et al. 2016. Chitosan-based nano-in-microparticle carriers for enhanced oral delivery and anticancer activity of propolis. Int J Biol Macromol, 92, 254-269.

ERCAN, N., et al. 2015. The comparative effect of propolis in two different vehicles; mouthwash and chewing-gum on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Eur J Dent, 9, 272-276.

ESLAMI, H., et al. 2016. Efficacy of Hypozalix spray and propolis mouthwash for prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in leukemic patients: A double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects, 10, 226-233.

FALCAO, S. I., et al. 2014. In vitro evaluation of Portuguese propolis and floral sources for antiprotozoal, antibacterial and antifungal activity. Phytother Res, 28, 437-43.

FISCHER, G., et al. 2007a. Adjuvant effect of green propolis on humoral immune response of bovines immunized with bovine herpesvirus type 5. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 116, 79-84.

FISCHER, G., et al. 2007b. Immunomodulation produced by a green propolis extract on humoral and cellular responses of mice immunized with SuHV-1. Vaccine, 25, 1250-6.

FISCHER, G., et al. 2010. Green propolis phenolic compounds act as vaccine adjuvants, improving humoral and cellular responses in mice inoculated with inactivated vaccines. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 105, 908-13.

FRANCA, J. R., et al. 2014. Propolis–based chitosan varnish: drug delivery, controlled release and antimicrobial activity against oral pathogen bacteria. BMC Complement Altern Med, 14, 478.

GHEIB, N., et al. 2020. The Effect of Oral Consumption of Propolis Alone and in Combination With Silver Nanoparticles on Wound Healing in Male Wistar Rats. Wound Manag Prev, 66, 38-46.

GOMAA, O. M., et al. 2013. Variation in adhesion and germ tube formation of oral Candida using Egyptian propolis. Can J Microbiol, 59, 197-203.

GONZALEZ-SERRANO, J., et al. 2021. Application of propolis extract, nanovitamin C and nanovitamin E to prevent alveolar osteitis after impacted lower third molar surgery. A randomized, double-blind, split-mouth, pilot study. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal, 26, e118-e125.

HALBOUB, E., et al. 2020. Efficacy of propolis-based mouthwashes on dental plaque and gingival inflammation: a systematic review. BMC Oral Health, 20, 198.

HAY, K. D., et al. 1990. Propolis allergy: a cause of oral mucositis with ulceration. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 70, 584-6.

HWANG, S., et al. 2020. Oral administration of Korean propolis extract ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in BALB/c mice. Int J Med Sci, 17, 1984-1991.

HWU, Y. J., et al. 2014. Effectiveness of propolis on oral health: a meta-analysis. J Nurs Res, 22, 221-9.

ILEWICZ, L., et al. 1982. [Further trials of using ethanol-extracted propolis (EEP) in the treatment of various diseases of the teeth and oral mucosa]. Czas Stomatol, 35, 749-53.

JAFARZADEH KASHI, T. S., et al. 2011. Evaluating the In-vitro Antibacterial Effect of Iranian Propolis on Oral Microorganisms. Iran J Pharm Res, 10, 363-8.

JOSHY, A., et al. 2018. To Evaluate the Efficacy of Topical Propolis in the Management of Symptomatic Oral Lichen Planus: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Contemp Clin Dent, 9, 65-71.

KAPOOR, S. 2013. Propolis and its emerging anti-neoplastic effects: beyond its role in oral dysplasia. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol, 79, 417.

KAVAZ, E., et al. 2019. Effects of Oral Propolis on Mucosal Wound Healing after Endoscopic Nasal Surgery in a Rabbit Model. Turk Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 57, 68-74.

KEDZIA, A., et al. 1988. [Estimation of the effectiveness of ethanol extract of propolis on obligate anaerobes of oral cavity]. Czas Stomatol, 41, 757-62.

KHURSHID, Z., et al. 2017. Propolis: A natural biomaterial for dental and oral healthcare. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects, 11, 265-274.

KIANI, S., et al. 2021. Effect of Propolis Mouthwash on Clinical Periodontal Parameters in Patients with Gingivitis: A Double Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Dent Hyg.

KOO, H., et al. 2002. Effect of a mouthrinse containing selected propolis on 3-day dental plaque accumulation and polysaccharide formation. Caries Res, 36, 445-8.

KOO, H., et al. 2000. In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis and Arnica montana against oral pathogens. Arch Oral Biol, 45, 141-8.

KORU, O., et al. 2007. In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis samples from different geographical origins against certain oral pathogens. Anaerobe, 13, 140-5.

KUO, C. C., et al. 2018. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of propolis mouthwash in cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis. Support Care Cancer, 26, 4001-4009.

LI, Z., et al. 2021. Reviewing Propolis with Multi-components in the Treatment of Oral Diseases through Multi-pathways and Multi-targets. Mini Rev Med Chem, 21, 1406-1420.

LISBONA-GONZALEZ, M. J., et al. 2021. Effect of Propolis Paste and Mouthwash Formulation on Healing after Teeth Extraction in Periodontal Disease. Plants (Basel), 10.

MACHOROWSKA-PIENIAZEK, A., et al. 2013. Influence of propolis on hygiene, gingival condition, and oral microflora in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013, 183915.

MACHOROWSKA-PIENIAZEK, A., et al. 2021. Advantages of using toothpaste containing propolis and plant oils for gingivitis prevention and oral cavity hygiene in cleft lip/palate patients. Biomed Pharmacother, 142, 111992.

MACHOROWSKA-PIENIAZEK, A., et al. 2016. Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Dental Plaque and Gingiva in Patients with Oral Cleft Malformation Treated with Multibracket and Removable Appliances: A Comparative Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2016, 2038407.

MARTINEZ SILVEIRA, G., et al. 1988. [Preliminary study of the effects of propolis in the treatment of chronic gingivitis and oral ulceration]. Rev Cubana Estomatol, 25, 36-44.

MARTINS, M. L., et al. 2019. Cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of a red propolis mouthwash, with or without fluoride, on the growth of a cariogenic biofilm. Arch Oral Biol, 107, 104512.

MARTINS, R. S., et al. 2002. Effect of commercial ethanol propolis extract on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans collected from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative Brazilian patients with oral candidiasis. J Oral Sci, 44, 41-8.

MORAWIEC, T., et al. 2013. The biological activity of propolis-containing toothpaste on oral health environment in patients who underwent implant-supported prosthodontic rehabilitation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013, 704947.

MORAWIEC, T., et al. 2015. The Assessment of Oral Microflora Exposed to 3% Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis Preparation Used for Hygiene Maintenance following Minor Oral Surgeries. Biomed Res Int, 2015, 869575.

MURRAY, M. C., et al. 1997. A study to investigate the effect of a propolis-containing mouthrinse on the inhibition of de novo plaque formation. J Clin Periodontol, 24, 796-8.

NAKAO, R., et al. 2021. Effects of oral moisturizing gel containing propolis following head and neck radiotherapy: randomized controlled pilot trial. BDJ Open, 7, 12.

NANAWARE, S., et al. 2017. Neuroprotective effect of Indian propolis in beta-amyloid induced memory deficit: Impact on behavioral and biochemical parameters in rats. Biomed Pharmacother, 93, 543-553.

NAZERI, R., et al. 2019. Evaluation of Antibacterial Effect of Propolis and its Application in Mouthwash Production. Front Dent, 16, 1-12.

NIEDZIELSKA, I., et al. 2016. The Influence of Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis Gel on Hygiene and Oral Microbiota in Patients after Mandible Fractures. Biomed Res Int, 2016, 9190814.

NORONHA, V. R., et al. 2014. Mucoadhesive propolis gel for prevention of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Curr Clin Pharmacol, 9, 359-64.

OKAMOTO, Y., et al. 2015. Oral administration of Brazilian propolis exerts estrogenic effect in ovariectomized rats. J Toxicol Sci, 40, 235-42.

OZAN, F., et al. 2007. Effect of mouthrinse containing propolis on oral microorganisms and human gingival fibroblasts. Eur J Dent, 1, 195-201.

PANG, J. F., et al. 1985. [Treatment of oral leukoplakia with propolis: report of 45 cases]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 5, 485-6, 452-3.

PARK, Y. K., et al. 1998. Antimicrobial activity of propolis on oral microorganisms. Curr Microbiol, 36, 24-8.

PATEL, A. S., et al. 2020. Evaluation of the Role of Propolis and a New Herbal Ointment in Promoting Healing of Traumatic Oral Ulcers: An Animal Experimental Study. Contemp Clin Dent, 11, 121-125.

PEREIRA, E. M., et al. 2011. Clinical Evidence of the Efficacy of a Mouthwash Containing Propolis for the Control of Plaque and Gingivitis: A Phase II Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2011, 750249.

PIEKARZ, T., et al. 2017. The Influence of Toothpaste Containing Australian Melaleuca alternifolia Oil and Ethanolic Extract of Polish Propolis on Oral Hygiene and Microbiome in Patients Requiring Conservative Procedures. Molecules, 22.

PIREDDA, M., et al. 2017. Propolis in the prevention of oral mucositis in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: A pilot randomised controlled trial. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl), 26.

POPPE, B., et al. 1986. [Results of a twice-yearly controlled oral hygiene activity using a propolis-containing toothpaste (double-blind study)]. Stomatol DDR, 36, 195-203.

PUNDIR, A. J., et al. 2017. One-stage Full Mouth Disinfection Using 20% Propolis Hydroalcoholic Solution: A Clinico-microbiologic Study. Contemp Clin Dent, 8, 416-420.

RIBEIRO, D. R., et al. 2015. Inhibition of DMBA-induced Oral Squamous Cells Carcinoma Growth by Brazilian Red Propolis in Rodent Model. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 117, 85-95.

RISTIVOJEVIC, P., et al. 2020. Phenolic composition and biological activities of geographically different type of propolis and black cottonwood resins against oral streptococci, vaginal microbiota and phytopathogenic Fusarium species. J Appl Microbiol, 129, 296-310.

S, V. K. 2014. Propolis in dentistry and oral cancer management. N Am J Med Sci, 6, 250-9.

SALIM, E. I., et al. 2015. Antitumoral and Antioxidant Potential of Egyptian Propolis Against the PC3 Prostate Cancer Cell Line. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 7641-51.

SANGHAVI, T., et al. 2013. Evaluation and comparison of efficacy of three different storage media, coconut water, propolis, and oral rehydration solution, in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament cells. J Conserv Dent, 16, 71-4.

SANTIAGO, K. B., et al. 2016. Immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects of a propolis-containing mouthwash on human monocytes. Pathog Dis, 74.

SANTIAGO, K. B., et al. 2018. Microbiological control and antibacterial action of a propolis-containing mouthwash and control of dental plaque in humans. Nat Prod Res, 32, 1441-1445.

SANTOS, F. A., et al. 2002. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis and fractions against oral anaerobic bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol, 80, 1-7.

SANTOS, V. R., et al. 2005. Oral candidiasis treatment with Brazilian ethanol propolis extract. Phytother Res, 19, 652-4.

SAYYADI, F., et al. 2020. The effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Iranian propolis on Candida Albicans isolated from the mouth of patients with colorectal malignancy undergone chemotherapy: An in-vitro study. Caspian J Intern Med, 11, 62-66.

SCHMIDT, H., et al. 1980. [Double-blind trial of the effect of a propolis-containing mouthwash on inflamed and healthy gingiva]. Stomatol DDR, 30, 491-7.

SHEN, S. L. 1986. [Ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa treated by propolis]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Ke Za Zhi, 21, 209-11.

SKABA, D., et al. 2013. Influence of the toothpaste with brazilian ethanol extract propolis on the oral cavity health. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013, 215391.

SONMEZ, S., et al. 2005. The effect of bee propolis on oral pathogens and human gingival fibroblasts. J Ethnopharmacol, 102, 371-6.

STAHLI, A., et al. 2021. In Vitro Activity of Propolis on Oral Microorganisms and Biofilms. Antibiotics (Basel), 10.

STEINBERG, D., et al. 1996. Antibacterial effect of propolis and honey on oral bacteria. Am J Dent, 9, 236-9.

SUNG, S. H., et al. 2017. External Use of Propolis for Oral, Skin, and Genital Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2017, 8025752.

TAMBUR, Z., et al. 2021. Inhibitory effects of propolis and essential oils on oral bacteria. J Infect Dev Ctries, 15, 1027-1031.

TANASIEWICZ, M., et al. 2012. Influence of hygienic preparations with a 3% content of ethanol extract of Brazilian propolis on the state of the oral cavity. Adv Clin Exp Med, 21, 81-92.

TOMAZEVIC, T., et al. 2013. A double blind randomised placebo controlled study of propolis (bee glue) effectiveness in the treatment of severe oral mucositis in chemotherapy treated children. Complement Ther Med, 21, 306-12.

VANNI, R., et al. 2015. Antibacterial Efficacy of a Propolis Toothpaste and Mouthrinse Against a Supragingival Multispecies Biofilm. Oral Health Prev Dent, 13, 531-5.

VLACHOJANNIS, C., et al. 2018. Activity of preparations from Spilanthes oleracea, propolis, Nigella sativa, and black garlic on different microorganisms involved in oral diseases and on total human salivary bacteria: A pilot study. Phytother Res, 32, 1992-2001.

WIATRAK, K., et al. 2021. Evaluation of Effectiveness of a Toothpaste Containing Tea Tree Oil and Ethanolic Extract of Propolis on the Improvement of Oral Health in Patients Using Removable Partial Dentures. Molecules, 26.

WIECKIEWICZ, W., et al. 2013. Does propolis help to maintain oral health? Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013, 351062.

WIMARDHANI, Y. S., et al. 2014. Oral mucosal ulceration caused by the topical application of a concentrated propolis extract. Case Rep Dent, 2014, 307646.

WU, X. Y., et al. 2012. Enhanced anti-diabetic activity of a combination of chromium(III) malate complex and propolis and its acute oral toxicity evaluation. Biol Trace Elem Res, 148, 91-101.

YAMAGA, M., et al. 2021. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids after oral administration of Brazilian green propolis in humans. Food Funct, 12, 2520-2530.

YU, Q., et al. 2015. [Effects of Yili dark bee propolis on oral cariogenic biofilm in vitro]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 33, 343-6.

ZULHENDRI, F., et al. 2021. The use of propolis in dentistry, oral health, and medicine: A review. J Oral Biosci, 63, 23-34.


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